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One of the most famous international standards organizations is American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM International). ASTM International was founded in 1898 by a group of engineers and scientists led by Charles Dudley. At first the society was committed to solving the problem of frequent rail breaks across the country. Rail breaks not only plagued the development of the rail industry but also stained the reputation of track manufactures and led to accidents that could have been avoided. To deal with the problem, the scientists, along with professional technicians, developed a standard for the steel used to produce rail tracks. Now industry standards made by ASTM International can be generally divided into six categories: ASTM Standard Specification, ASTM Standard Test Method, ASTM Standard Practice, ASTM Standard Guide, ASTM Standard Classification, and ASTM Terminology Standard. In terms of steel pipes, ASTM International has produced a number of standards. For example, ASTM 420 sets out general requirements for steel pipe producers; ASTM A107 stipulates the quality standards of API steel pipe for the transportation of oil; ASTM G38 specifies the standard practice for the corrosion treatment of seamless steel pipe.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a non-profit standards organization. It is committed to the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel to ensure that products made in the United States can be sold and used worldwide. It not only accredits standards set by other standard-setting organizations and government agencies but also grants personnel certification in accordance with the requirements in widely recognized international standards. Concerning the piping industry, ANSI has both produced and accredited a number of standards. For example, ANSI A698 specifies the quality standards for carbon steel pipe for general industrial use and ANSI 709 stipulates the specification for steel shapes, plates and bars for bridges.
There are also regional standards for seamless steel pipe. Saudi Aramco References (SAR), for instance, include three standards: Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure (SAEP), Saudi Aramco Materials System Specification (SAMSS), and Saudi Aramc Inspection Requirements. In general, API steel pipes, imported from or exported to Saudi Arabia, are carefully inspected and tested in such aspects as the resistance of two hydrogen-induced cracking and fracture control strictly according to these standards. The brief introductions which is helpful includes standards of all areas in the seamless steel pipes.
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